All kinds of injuries, diseases and disorders affecting skin, subcutaneous, muscles, tendons (muscle ligaments), nerves, vessels, joints and bones at the zone from finger tips to shoulder constitute the basic subjects of Hand Surgery. All types of open wounds and sores, deformities and burns of this zone from fractures and dislocations, tearing of muscles and tendons, or skin incisions without any open wound to very heavy injuries or ruptures of extremities (also including foot and leg) are covered by treatments of Hand Surgery. The target diseases may be listed as all and any congenital deficiencies, impairments and adhesions on hand, wrist and upper arm, and paralyses caused by trauma in childbirth, and rheumatic diseases, infections, tumors, and posttraumatic sequellae on hands and wrists (paralyses developed due to a nerve ruptured as a result of an accident or losses of function due to circulation disorders, correction of fractures and dislocations that are bad-knitted or wrong-knitted, deformities developing by time after burns, various non-infectious nail impairments, etc.). Arthroscopic (operations performed by closed techniques) treatment of some diseases and injuries of small joints and intra-articular structures on hands, wrists, elbows and upper arm are also covered by Hand Surgery discipline.
Due to width of treatment scope, hand surgery has a multi-disciplinary field covering Orthopedics, Plastic Surgery and General Surgery as well. Hand surgeons become competent by a long and self-sacrificing secondary branch training after completion of training for these primary branches. Successful clinic results can be obtained only through a teamwork conducted especially together with Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation.