Laparoscopy, Endoscopy, Minimally Invasive Surgery
Laparoscopic or minimally invasive technique, or better known as closed method surgery in public, is a special field of application of surgery. Laparoscopy, introduced as a technique for surgery of gynecological diseases in the past, have started to be used in gall bladder, pancreas, liver, stomach and intestine surgeries with advancing technology and become increasingly common throughout the world. In open surgery, a longitudinal abdominal incision was needed to reach inside the abdomen. In laparoscopic (closed) technique, on the other hand, surgeries can be completed with a few incisions sized 0.5-1 cm. Cannulas placed through abdomen as portals are called as trocars.
A camera for intra-abdominal imaging and many instruments specially developed for these techniques are placed inside the abdomen through trocars, and surgeries are completed. The abdomen is inflated and enlarged with carbon dioxide gas to facilitate visualization. Intra-abdominal organs pull away from each other and a cavity for surgery is created.
Images created by the camera are transferred to the surgery room by video monitors. Surgeon watches the intra-abdominal images on the monitor during surgery. This system allows the surgeon to perform many surgeries using traditional methods through much smaller incisions. Endoscopy operation can also be shortly called as ‘gastroscopy’. Endoscopy for large intestine is called as ‘colonoscopy’. During gastroscopy, esophagus, esophageal-stomach junction, stomach, pylorus and duodenum are examined.