Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Sinus is the name of air-filled cavities around the nose, behind the eyeball and on maxillary bone. Approximately half a liter of secretion is produced in sinuses per day. In case of disruption of air inflow and outflow through sinuses (due to cold, influenza, nose bone curvatures, polyps, adenoid, etc.), microbes start to be reproduced. Thus, sinus mucosa is inflamed. This is called “acute sinusitis”. If the cause is removed, sinus is re-aerated and cured, or otherwise, the process continues, and if it continues for up to 3 months, it is called “chronic sinusitis”. While treatment of acute sinusitis is easy and short, treatment of chronic sinusitis is difficult and mostly requires surgical intervention methods.
What are symptoms of sinusitis?
Nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, fatigue, mild temperature, and pain and sensitivity on forehead, retrobulba and maxilla… In the case of a common cold with a yellowish-green nose discharge, acute sinusitis should be considered. Sinusitis may be diagnosed through disease history and endoscopic examination. But final diagnosis is based on radiological analyses. Though direct graphies such as Waters and Caldwell can give an idea, tomography is the best diagnostic tool. However, tomography should not be preferred much, other than chronic sinusitis.
How is sinusitis treated?
Acute sinusitis mostly responds to antibiotic treatment, while generally surgical intervention is required for chronic sinusitis. The Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery (FESS) applied in the recent years is the most effective surgical method used in treatment of sinusitis. When well-indicated and performed by qualified surgeons, this surgical method gives fairly successful results. In chronic sinusitis, generally following an antibiotic treatment of 2-3 weeks, tomography scan is performed, and surgical intervention is decided. Surgical intervention is done under local or preferable general anesthesia. In postoperative period, intranasal cavity must be kept clean, and the doctor’s recommendations must be complied with.
Nasal polyp is the name of mucosal swelling of lining of nose due to chronic inflammatory diseases of mucosa covering nose and sinuses. They tend to combine and form structures like a bunch of grapes having a soft consistence. Sometimes they may swell to such extent that they hang down the nose. They are more commonly reported in males. The most common complaint of it is nasal obstruction. Sneezing, itching, and nasal and adenoma discharges may also be seen. Snoring and sleep apnea may also develop. Smelling and tasting disorders may be noted. It may be easily diagnosed by direct or endoscopic examination. It is further possible to view the polyps in sinuses in tomography. The most effective drug for nasal polyps is cortisone. If cortisone does not help, surgical treatment is planned. In the recent years, this operation is less bloody and more effective through easier cleaning by a tool named shaver.