Causes and Treatment of Obesity Surgery

What is obesity?

Among developed and developing countries obesity is one of the most significant health problems. Obesity means the overall body lean mass to fat mass ratio of the height, which is the result of cessive increase of body weight above the desired level.

As we all known, nutrition and food is essential to life which starts in the womb and continues up until the end of our lives.

Obesity is human growth to excess. For us to lead a healthy and productive life for as long as is necessary we need an adequate and balanced amount of nutrients in the body, which has the ability to pick what it needs.

Our reaction should not be to fill the stomach, to suppress hunger, or want something to eat or drink constantly.

Individuals in everyday life (pregnant women, lactating women, babies, school children, young and old, workers, athletes, those with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, respiratory disorders, etc.) considering age, gender, work, and genetic and physiological characteristics and disease status depicts someones daily energy needs.

To maintain a healthy lifestyle, a balance is required from the energy taken to the energy expended.

In 15 to 18% of the body weight of adult males, and 20 to 25% of women there is fatty tissue. When this rate rises above 25% in men, 30% in women then this constitutes obesity.

In the case of greater daily energy being taken than the expended energy, the energy which can not be spent is stored as fat in the body and leads to the formation of obesity.

Accordingly, today's advancements in technology, make life easier and therefore significantly limits our daily movements .

As previously stated obesity occurs when the taken food energy (calories) are more than the energy spent and this excess energy is then stored as fat in the body (%20 or more) and obesity is then regarded as a disease which adversely affects the quality and duration of a persons life.

World Health Organization (WHO) Organization defines obesity as the accumulation of excess fat in the body that damages the health of human body.

Causes of Obesity

It has not been fully understood factors that cause obesity however excessive and improper diet and lack of physical activity is recognized as the major causes. Besides these factors, genetic, environmental, neurological,physiological, biochemical, socio-cultural and psychological factors together are associated and lead to the formation of obesity. All over the world, especially the increase in childhood obesity which can not be explained by changes in the genetic, are accepted due to the role of environmental factors in the etiology of obesity.

In the formation of Obesity the primary risk factors are listed below:
  • Excessive and improper eating habits, 
  • Inadequate physical activity,
  • Age,
  • Gender, 
  • Education level, 
  • Socio - cultural factors, 
  • Income Status, 
  • Hormonal and metabolic factors, 
  • Genetic factors, 
  • Psychological problems, 
  • Very low-energy at frequent intervals, 
  • Application diets, 
  • Non-alcohol use Some medications (antidepressants, etc.), 
  • Number of births and birth time between.
In the devolopment of the obesity, factors to be considered are the form of nutrition in the development of the first year of life. In the studies, obesity prevalence shows lower rates with breast milk fed children, than to the bottle milk feeding children and that the duration of breastfeeding, complementary types of food, quantity and the starting times are reported to affect the formation of obesity.

Various documents published by WHO and UNICEF state in a baby’s first 6 months,there should be exclusive breastfeeding , after 6 months breastfeeding be continued along with reliable and appropriate quality and quantity of complementary foods, from birth to at least 2 years of continuous breastfeeding short-and long-term obesity and chronic diseases can be reduced according to the indicated risks.

What should be done for the treatment of obesity?

Obesity, primarily diet, exercise and behavior (lifestyle) can be prevented and can be treated with changes. In this ıssue the support can get from a dietitian or a physician.

Obesity can be treated with medication?

Yes, for the treatment of obesity, the some medications are uses for the appetite suppressant and reducing the absorption of fat from the intestine,but these drugs have more side effects and their use must be under the control of an endocrinologist.

Obesity can be treated surgically?

Yes, obesity can be treated surgically. İf the Obesity has been diagnosed as a disease state and such measures as diet, exercise, lifestyle changes, does not control this situation, together with diabetes, hypertension and exercising to prevent joint discomfort, and if the operative procedure does not pose a serious risk then surgery can be undertaken. If obese people, follow diet and exercise to lose weight but continuity of these efforts are not demonstrate, and the weight that they lose returns after a short time and they return to their initial weight, surgical intervention can be performed so that permanent weight loss and obesity is preventable. Today, many surgical techniques are applied for the treatment of obesity. A gastric stomach by pass and intestines at the same time can be done alongside complicated surgeries such as gastric banding, gastric tube, and stomach folding making surgery easier and more successful.

With surgery can you also control diabetes and hypertension that would go alongside with obesity?

Yes, weight loss after treatment with surgery and generally an interest in losing weight in obese people without diabetes is available, a lot like hypertension or metabolic diseases are completely resolved and they are becoming easier to treat. Therefore, bariatric surgery (bariatric surgery) today is also called metabolic surgery or surgical diabetes.

Can surgery correct diabetes?

Yes, it may be reversible. In obesity patients with type 2 diabetes after surgical therapy, if sufficient insulin is produced with weight loss then a reversal can occur. The non-obese BMI under 35 and in patients with type 2 diabetes, insulin in the blood if you have enough to do with surgical treatment is possible by diabetes. This treatment which patients would be appropriate after doctor control arises.

How surgeries are being implemented, how long do you need to stay in hospital?

IN BARIATRIC SURGERY THERE IS A LAPAROSCOPIC LONGER OPEN WOUND ON THE ABDOMEN THEREFORE USUALLY ONLY 1-2 DAYS IN HOSPITAL IS REQUIRED.

Can every obese person be operated on?

No…
  • Obesity, thyroid gland,laziness, steroid use or the like is connected to organ disease
  • Addicted to alcohol and/or drugs
  • If you have a serious psychiatric disorder
  • Women in the 10-12 months of pregnancy ... this surgery is not performed.
Who can be treated with surgery?

Dietitian or endocrinologist under the control of diet, exercise and behavior change despite efforts does not get the desired result over a period of 6-12 months , or if the weight lost is regained
BMI 40 or over 35 are associated with obesity and diabetesif you have diseases such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia
Disease is not an obstacle to have surgery or surgical practice does not pose a serious risk
If the person really wants to loss weight and ın the period after surgery he can follow the doctor advice , it can be decided that surgery can be done.

The age at which surgery can be performed?

For the surgical treatment of obesity there are age restrictions. Generally those between 18-60 years are appropriate for surgery however girls of 13 years who have achieved a full level of development and boys of 15 years and those with a serious risk to health and disease and those aged 70 years exceeding the morbidity obese, surgery can be performed.

Is there a weight limit in surgical practice?

Yes, there are limits to lose weight for surgery. Even if there is no other discomfort, there constitutes a major risk for those that are 180kg and over resulting in surgical treatment. For these people a temporarily (first) balloon will be inserted into the stomach (intragastric balloon) which will help and maintaining the weight loss until surgery can be performed. This will not pose a risk for stroke. Intragastric balloon is placed for a period of 6 months. If this period is not enough time for weight loss to occur then the balloon should be changed.